Corruption in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, a realm of peninsular and insular, consists of ten countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Burma, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Cambodia, Laos PDR and Vietnam. It shares border with India at the northwest, China at the northeast, for the west and the east are surrounded by the Indian Ocean and the vast Pacific Ocean respectively. As a realm, which is prosperous with natural resources, culture, ethnicity and languages, Southeast Asia becomes a unique realm that has its own charm. Each country in Southeast Asia always has its resort towns that can strike a lot of tourists’ attention. Disguising behind the facade mask as an idyllic realm with a magnificent civilization, Southeast Asia has been facing a lot of obstacles that cease the development of this realm. There are plenty of problems that happen to all most all of the countries in Southeast Asia and those issues have been aggravating the economic condition. Corruption is the main problem that roots deeply into the society in Southeast Asia’s countries which leads to the other issues such as the declining of natural sources, poverty and political instability. Even though corruption is a stern problem that is indeed difficult to demolish, but if the people consolidate together and try to find the solution then corruption will be eradicated. There are several solutions to get rid out of corruption such as enforcing the law which against corruption and also form an organization which is always vigilant over corrupt activities, increasing the amount of salary as well as the minimum wage and motivating young generation to love knowledge.
There are various reasons that cause deforestation in Southeast Asia; however, the main root is corruption. Corruption causes the loss of natural resources by some illegal companies. Those deprave companies bribe the authority for the land that lust with rainforest. Within the rainforest in their hand, those ruthless companies can cut down the tree in order to find valuable trees such as timber, teak and black ebony. Based on Illegal logging, corruption and state’s projects causing deforestation, it illustrates that “Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) said Myanmar is covered with 48 percent forestry. But some said 42 percent. Some even released statement like 20 percent and less. However, the FAO issued a statement saying that the country has only 10 percent of primary forest. Primary forest means exploitation or logging has not been done yet at those forests. It is absolutely untouched (Kyaw Thu, the chairman for the MCBPA said).” This clarifies that the information which is related to the amount of forest in Myanmar has provided inaccurately which mean Myanmar’s government has attended unscrupulous activities by covering the information about the loss of forest. The information above also shows that the depletion of rainforest in Myanmar has been increasing rapidly and there is only 10 percent of primary forest left which mean the small amount of this remaining rainforest will soon be destroyed. Citing from The Rate of Deforestation in Cambodia is Alarming, it demonstrates that ‘’the rate of deforestation in Cambodia has accelerated at an alarming rate in the last few years. Cambodia, home to some of Southeast Asia’s oldest and most diverse forests, has been losing these precious areas as a result of corporations using permits illegally to clear out land. The country is losing around 2,000 square kilometers of its ancient forests every year’’. This pin points that the forest in Cambodia has been destroying by the illegal company in the picture of making a corporation. In brief, the rate of rainforest in Southeast Asia has been declining promptly and even surpasses the emergency level like in Cambodia; it extended until reaching at an alarming rate. Thus, the authority in this Southeast Asia should pay attention to this concern because all the impact that causes by deforestation will happen to the citizen in this region as well as every people all around the globe.
Corruption and poverty are two inferior things that link with each other. One said that corruption causes poverty while others said that poverty causes corruption; albeit, this two things are the problems that have been occurred in Southeast Asia. According to a book which is called Beyound Economic Growth and Development, it illustrates that ‘’ The number of poor people in a country and the average quality of life also depend on how equally—or unequally—income is distributed’’ (Tatyana P. Soubbotina 34). As everybody knows most of the countries in Southeast Asia are developing countries which mean they need a lot of foreign companies to invest. However, whenever the negotiation occurs, the authority in Southeast Asia always demands for the bribe so that they will smoothly making a compromise. By wasting the money over the bribe, those companies conceivably subsidize the minimum wage of the workers and that causes the unequally income which will contribute to the poverty as the book above asserted. ‘’ Indonesia consists of a collection of islands in Southeast Asia and happens to be the fourth most populous countries in the world. While it’s largely a prosperous country, there is an alarming set of social and economic disparities, with many regions experiencing under-nutrition, unemployment, chronic food insecurity and outright poverty. The end result is that 8 million Indonesian children under age five (36.8% of the population) suffer from malnutrition.’’ posted by a page of an organization which is called Action Against Poverty. This evinces that poverty is the main problem in Indonesia and the government in Indonesia should take a gigantic responsibility to this problem because 36.8% of the total population which are children have been suffering from starvation. Another exemplification is from BORGEN Magazine, it expresses that ‘’Only a few metro stops from Bangkok’s luxurious malls and five-star hotels of the city center, one arrives at Klong Toey, where Bangkok hides its slum in the same district with luxurious malls, expat bars, high-end hotels, parks and its Stock Exchange’’ ( Peewara Sapsuwan, April 28,2014). This is a mirror reflection showing that even Thailand, one of the luxurious countries in Southeast Asia, still cannot escape from poverty. Bangkok which is known as a deluxe metropolitan still comprises of slum area, hence how about another country in Southeast Asia? Can they rescue from poverty if one of the most developing countries in this area still cannot extricate from it? To sum up, poverty is a major problem that happens in Southeast Asia. The government in this area should concentrate on this problem because the image of poverty perhaps has a negative impact on a country’s infrastructure.
Another issue which is caused by corruption is the political instability. When citizen in a country know that their government is corrupted then they will protest in order to demand their corrupt government to step out of their power. When the protest occurs in a country, then there will be an uprising; therefore, the opposite party will by chance get the opportunity to brainwash people to believe in their politics. Because of the uprising, it perchance causes the explosion of violent between the military and the people. Looking at the situation in Thailand, we can say that the rebellious activity that causes the worst civil war in Thailand in 2013 is caused by the accuse saying that Thaksin was abetted in a corruption. ‘’Later that year, he was convicted by a Thai court of corruption and sentenced in absentia to two years in prison over ..…Critics say Yingluck is Thaksin’s puppet, but she insists she has always been independent’’ written By Jethro Mulle, a journalist from CNN news. Another clarification from BBC news states that ‘’ Thailand is currently in a political mess. The country has been in the grip of unrest for months, with the opposition saying the democratically elected government must go because it is corrupt. A number of people have been killed in the violence.” According to both new, it manifests that because of the corruption in Thailand, the country situation was in the mess. People didn’t unify together, they were separated into two phalanxes and those two solid phalanxes faced each other and appeal for their own leader to supervise the state. Because of this chaos, the government had no choice but to order military to cease this turmoil by abusing the stern citizen. As a result a number of people have been killed. Back to 2009 Indonesia also had this problem. According to the Jakarta Post on Sun, December 06 2009, 2:51 PM, it illustrates that ‘’Supporters of the Hizb ut-Tahrir, an international network that advocates a worldwide Islamic state, staged a peaceful protest in downtown Jakarta calling for the president to bring to justice corrupt government officials. Police estimated some 2,000 protesters attended the rally.’’ This illustrates that because of wanting to fight against the corrupt government, approximately 2000 Muslim protesters congregated in Jakarta in order to make a plea to the president. They demanded for prosecuting the corrupt government. Even though it was a peaceful protest, but it somehow affected the top anti-graft agency and rival police and prosecutors in Indonesia and it made this state fall into disarray. In short, because of corruption, most countries in Southeast Asia have experienced anarchy which makes those countries plunge into the politics instability. When anarchy arises in a country, the people in that country are the one who undergo that hardship; hence, the government in each country in Southeast Asia should try to prevent anarchy from happening.
There are no such problems that don’t have solution; therefore, people in Southeast Asia realm don’t have to be really concern about that. As the main problem is corruption then people can just unify together and form an organization to vigilant over corrupt activity. As Southeast Asia contains ten countries then each country has to be aware of another country situation. If one country commits corruption, then another country must inform to the citizen in that country. People in that country will put the penalty to their government, they can either choose to overthrow their government or give them a second chance. Enhancing the salary as well as the minimum wage is another solution to end corruption. Once people have adequate money, then they won’t commit any illegal activities because everyone has their conscious; they won’t do anything that affects their kudos. Another aspect is that before we get rid out of corruption, we first have to focus on how to exterminate bribery. By doing this we have to educate young generation, build up their conscience and hatred toward bribery. We have to inspire them to become nationalists who detest corruption. It doesn’t mean that we don’t care about the old generation who always bribe someone, but we just have to ensure that the new generation doesn’t follow the old awful path that creates by some old dreadful generation. Education is the only way to stop corruption. Once the citizens are educated, they will potentially analyze their country’s situation and that is the origin of the nationalists and peace. ‘’Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world’’ this is what Nelson Mandela said.
As can be seen, corruption is the major problem that happens in Southeast Asia and this problem causes the other problems such as deforestation, poverty and the instability of the state. To answer this problem, there are several solutions but the effective solution is to develop the educational system, making the entire citizen become knowledgeable. Increasing the minimum wage and forming a new legislation that are against corruption are another solution to solve it. Government in this region should concern about this problem and fight thoroughly against it. Without corruption, each country in Southeast Asia will be more peaceful and rapidly developed. The arising of enhancement in every country in Southeast Asia depends on the permanent disappear of corruption. But since corruption has been stuck profoundly into Southeast Asia’s society, the obliteration of corruption might be time consuming so when will every country in Southeast Asia become fully developed? Can the citizen in each country in Southeast Asia unify together and form a formidable government that can lead the country to become a developed country that has no corruption?
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“Illegal logging, corruption and state’s projects causing deforestation” ELEVEN. Dr. Than Htut Aung. August 2015. <http://www.elevenmyanmar.com/local/illegal-logging-corruption-and-state%E2%80%99s-projects-causing-deforestation >
Aamna Mohdin. “The Rate of Deforestation in Cambodia is alarming”. IFLSCIENCE. July 21, 2015. <http://www.iflscience.com/environment/rate-deforestation-cambodia-alarming >
D.soubbotina. Beyound Economic Growth and Development. Washington D.C: Tatyana, D.Soubbotina, 2015. Print
Peewara Sapsuwan. ” Bangkok’s Klong Toey Slum “.BORGEN Magazine. April 28, 2014 <http://www.borgenmagazine.com/bangkoks-klong-toey-slum/ >
Jethro Mullen. “What’s behind the protests in Thailand”. CNN NEWS. November 27, 2013. <http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/26/world/asia/thailand-protests-explainer/>
” Why is Thailand under military rule “. BBC News. May 22, 2014. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-25149484 (22 May 2014)>
“2,000 demonstrators protest Indonesia corruption” The Jakarta Post. December 26, 2009. <http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/12/06/2000-demonstrators-protest-indonesian-corruption.html>